Saturday, 7 June 2008

Nullah News 14

Civic body spends Rs. 35 core, claims to be ready for monsoon

Nullah News - We're Prepared: BMC

Says who?!

The BMC has done destiling of major, minor nullahs across the city.
According to the recent nullah cleaning report, the BMC has cleared 200.254 km of major nullahs, 129.266 km of minor nullahs and 1986.98 km of road side open drains.
News Source - Mumbai Mirror

Nullah News 13

Vegetables vendors go about their business amid the muck dumped on the roadside in Borivli

Nullah News - Nullah Silt Dumped in Borivli

Veggies now garnished with a dash of...

- More than a week now, Devendra Deva, a senior citizen residing in a residential complex at Borivali (E), has been waking up to a heap of silt and muck dumped in the front of his home.
- The silt removed from gutters and nullahs, to clear them before the monsoons is being dumped on the roadsides, posing problem to residents, pedestrians and motorists. Wednesday was the ninth day that the slit lay there.
News Source - TOI

Nullah News 12

Contractors appointed to clean nullahs dump silt along the rail tracks; during the monsoon, the silt is likely to flow right back into the nullah and block movement of rain water; the results, flooding of tracks.

Nullah News - A Disaster by the rail tracks

Here Today

1. Contractors appointed by Western Railway are supposed to remove the silt from the nullah and dispose it away from the tracks.
2. But, to cut expenditure and increase profit, they dump the silt next the track. When it rains, the silt will flow back into the nullah.

(As per the rules, the contractors are suppose to remove the silt and also dispose it (away from the tracks) - A Western Railway Official

The RULES; WHY and HOW they are BROKEN
- Contractors are suppose to remove the silt, dispose it (away from the tracks)
- But they dump the silt along the tracks to save expenditure and increase profit
- Railway officials responsible for supervising the cleaning work overlook this negligence so that they meet the deadline.
News Source - Mumbai Mirror

Nullah News (Contd) - WR Clears Silt Dumped along Tracks

Gone Tomorrow

Following Mumbai Mirrior Report, order contractors to properly dispose waste from nullahs running along the rail lines
1. Mumbai Mirror's Monday edition reported silt lying along the tracks between Bandra and Matunga.
2. Area cleared of silt on Wednesday.
News Source - Mumbai Mirror

Nullah News 11

Nullahs a favourite dumping site

Nullah News - Residents raise a stink over blocked nullah

Blocked Ends

- One end of the nullah at Worli's Hanuman Nagar is open...
- But the other end is slowly being closed in by debris...
- While the pipe that is supposed to take the dirty water to the sea is completely closed off by debris causing the water to enter thehomes of residents around it.
News Source - Mumbai Mirror

Nullah News 10

My dump, your dump, every where a dump dump.

Nullah News - Debris in Nullah: AAI faces music from BMC panel

Planes 'n' Nullahs

The civic standing comittee sought action against the AAI (Airports Authority of India) for dumping debris in three nullahs in Borivli. Corporators said it would lead to flooding in the area.
News Source - TOI

Nullah News 09

Row row, row a boat

Nullah News - Getting Ready for the Monsoons

Clean-up Act

With the monsoons just a month away, the BMC is cleaning uo all the nullahs in the city.
News Source - TOI

Nullah News 08

Yet another thief finds solace in a Nullah and disappears

Nullah News - Baazigar Chor
English Translation - Trickster and Thief

Disappearing Act

A thief caught in the act jumps into gutter. Cops and firemen are called in. They stand guard at exit points while a fireman enters the nullah. At the end of an 8/hr operation, they are left with eggs on their faces...
News Source - Mumbai Mirror

Saturday, 18 August 2007

Nullah News - National & International 01

Nullah News - National 01 - Lucknow
‘Work on desilting of nullahs expected to finish on June 30’

Nullah Deadline(D)

- Lucknow, June 28: “Work has already been started and is expected to finish by June 30. The contractors have been asked to give a compliance report on the same date,” he said. He added that officials have been asked to expedite work considering the arrival of the monsoon. “Water logging can be avoided in the city if the nullahs are cleaned properly before monsoon,” Singh said.

- The city has around 569 nullahs. Nullahs less than one metre-deep are desilted by the Heath Department of the LMC, while those deeper than one metre are desilted by the Engineering Department and the Rubbish Removal Department. Acting Nagar Swasthya Adhikari A K Pandey said that all 328 nullahs that are supposed to be desilted by the Health Department have been desilted once and another round of work has been started.

- Municipal Commissioner Shailesh Kumar Singh said contractors will not be paid for areas that are either waterlogged or not desilted before June 30.

- Meanwhile, the anti-encroachment team of the LMC removed around 150 temporary or permanent structures in different zones. Harveer Singh said some structures were as old as 20 years and were constructed on the nullahs.
News Source - The Indian Express - Friday , June 29, 2007

Nullah News - International 01 - Islamabad
Nullah Cleansing or Civic Sense Infliction

Responsible Behaviour

-A special campaign for cleaning nullahs has begun in Islamabad on the directives of CDA Chairman Kamran Lashari. During the campaign, garbage in nullahs would be taken out to ensure a clean water flow. The CDA has directed citizens not to throw waste in nullahs and sewerage lines and to cooperate with the authorities in the campaign.

-OK Good enough - though I think Islamabad's sewerage lines are much "cleaner" than our twin city's or Lahore or any other city's nullahs. The thing of UTMOST importance is to teach our people at least some civic sense - when proper bins and carts come for taking the daily garbage then why the heck the need arises to litter in nullahs ???

-I've seen people going in 75+ Lacs of car and still throwing garbage, wrappers, cans out on the road - can't they keep some bags with them to collect their litter and throw it when they reach home??

-Don't we own some responsible behaviour here???
News Source - Metro Blogging, Islamabad, Pakistan, February 27, 2007

Nullah News - International 01 - Islamabad
Water and Waste

Murky Depths

- Has anybody else noticed how ill maintained and seriously deteriorated the city's water and sanitation system is? It is something that comes to for every time the rains come. Islamabad has the slight advantage over most cities in that it is a planned one which means that most if it does not face the conventional problems of water standing and stagnating on roadways. However, move away from the older sectors in to ones located to the edge of the city, including F-11, I-8, I-10 etc and you will find pools burgeoning every few kilometers.

- Besides that, lots of basements and relatively low lying houses, and those located in natural depressions complain often of floods of waste and muck. Lots of people end up calling for CDA pumps to clean out the areas that for days reek of stench and sewerage.

- It is a well known truth that all the waste from Islamabad's sectors, including industrial waste culminates in the various "nullahs" flowing between and under the streets before culminating in the Nullah Leh. These health hazards are becoming more acute with each passing day as in addition to the underground waste, these nullahs are also a dumping ground for a lot of the city's garbage. In spite of dumpsters in every other street, it is very convenient simply to toss bags and bins from car windows into the murky depths of these rivers of filth.

- As these nullahs flow deeper through Islamabad and Rawalpindi into relatively closer knit and lower level communities, areas and townships, what is not very conceivable for us is that these nullahs become the source of water for some areas as well. The drinking part, but old-style "dhobi-ghaats" and using this water to wash dishes and clothes personally is quite common.

- What is seriously worrying is that nobody really knows the state of the pipes and tubes and things under the city that make up its sewerage system. Decay and a poor checks and maintenance methods mean that water contamination is a very real problem. Similarly drains bubbling up due to blockages in streets and out on roads are also very common.

- An ineffective and poorly retained drainage system is a health risk, giving birth to possible ailments relating to skin and breathing at the simplest and if not contained and corrected, could bloom into serious ailments especially if the lines carrying waste merge with water lines. It has happened before and needs to be addressed by the Capital Development Authority at the earliest!
News Source - Metro Blogging, Islamabad, Pakistan, July 23, 2006

Nullah News 07

Juhu: In a unique civic initiative, residents of the Juhu Vile Parle Development (JVPD) Scheme have photographed encroachments along the Irla nullah to gather evidence on the clogging of drains, one of the key reasons for heavy flooding during the recent deluge.

Nullah News 07 - Locals expose clogging of Juhu Nullah

Clean-Up Act
-The entire area of JVPD, one of the best maintained in the western suburbs, was under five feet of water post-26/7. Several ground-floor houses were damaged by floodwater and hundreds of cars parked along the roads are still lying in garages awaiting repairs.

- Harit Desai, member of the JVPD Association, along with a few colleagues followed the route of the nullah and clicked around 30 photographs showing rampant encroachments. “We were shocked to see that shops have been illegally constructed over the nullah on Irla lane, and the municipal corporation is doing nothing about it,’’ he said. The evidence has already been presented to 14 housing societies that are part of the JVPD association.

- Following this, the members now plan to meet senior officials of the municipal corporation to present the evidence and demand action against the encroachments.

- On their part, the societies have already started the work of cleaning up several areas of the Irla nullah, which is the main outlet for the sewage lines in Juhu. The sewage lines empty into the nullah near Cooper Hospital, the municipal market and Amitabh Bachchan’s bungalow. It is these points that are choked with dirt, Desai said. “The situation is so bad that the nullah water starts flowing back into the drains during high tide,’’ he said. Since the BMC has failed to clean the nullahs, the societies have spent Rs 4 lakh on this work.

- Local MLA Ashok Jadhav, too, admitted that the nullahs are not cleaned and said this was the main reason for flooding. “In lots of cases, there is illegal reclamation of land around the nullahs, and the municipal corporation has not taken any action,’’ he said. In the wake of 26/7, local residents said the neighbourhood has also united to make its own arrangements for removal of garbage. “We hired six trucks and removed nearly 250 truckloads of garbage after the deluge. We also sprayed pesticides on garbage dumps,’’ he said.
News Source - TOI - 23.09.05

Nullah News 06

BMC has no place to rehabilitate families living near nullahs that need to be widened for the project

Nullah News o6 - Slums around nullahs will delay Brimstowad

Down the Drain

The delay will cost the citizens dearly as they would have to wait for six years to see a flood-free Mumbai FILE PIC

- It’s not just a couple of years, you would have to wait for at least six years to stop seeing your home getting flooded every monsoon. Reason?

- The BMC doesn’t have tenements to house 25,000 families who live in slums near the nullahs, which have to be widened as per the Brihanmumbai Storm Water Drain (Brimstowad) project.

- “It could take a minimum of six years to complete the project, simply because there are no houses available for these people. There has been no effort to construct houses or to find accommodation for these people.

- This is unfortunately going to cost citizens dearly as the nullahs cannot be widened without rehabilitating these people,” said a storm water department official.

- The civic body claims that the Brimstowad project would solve much of the city’s flooding problem as drainage capacity of the drains would be increased from the current 40 mm per hour to 50 mm per hour.

Phatak allays fears
- Municipal Commissioner Jayraj Phatak, however, claimed that they had enough tenements. “We have enough tenements and would acquire more tenements from other agencies as well as from our own rehab projects,” he said.

- But if a storm water department official is to be believed, the BMC has managed to provide tenements to only around 450 families so far.

- “The BMC is hoping that MMRDA would provide some tenements but the latter is itself struggling to house dwellers that have encroached on the airport land,” said the official.

- The tenements for 450 families have been purchased from either the Shiv Shahi Punarvasan Prakalp or from the MMRDA.

- The BMC pays an approximate Rs 4 lakh to these agencies for acquiring these tenements.

- There are around 20 nullahs in the city, all of which have been encroached and occupied by hutment dwellers.
News Source - Mid-Day

Nullah Related News 01

661 slums on nullahs in the area were demolished, bringing a ray of hope to the Guzdar Scheme’s Residents’ Trust (GSRT).

Nullah News 06 - 661 slums razed in Santacruz

4 Nullahs Vs 1,000 Huts

- After 21 court orders, the government finally got down to clearing slums from the Guzdar Bandh area on Sakaram B Patil Marg in Santacruz(W).

- The trust has been complaining about the slums for five years. And it took 21 court orders since April 2001 for the government to finally take notice.

- “We have demolished 661 slums. We are following court orders; the last hearing was on January 12 and we were told to demolish the slums immediately,” said B B Gawli, deputy collector (encroachment), Bandra. The mushrooming of slums on nullahs had become a cause for concern for locals, as sewage water had started entering their homes.

- Trupti Patel, trustee, GSRT, said, “The proliferation of slums was affecting the residential areas. The slums were blocking the flow of water into the sea. The four nullahs were choked with garbage. The nullahs were blocked by 1,000 huts on their either sides. Moreover, sluice gates to open/close the nullahs were also destroyed. As a result, our buildings were getting flooded even during high tide, let alone during monsoon.

- Sometimes even sewage water entered our homes. On July 26 last year, during floods, our area was the worst affected.”

- Patel said the trust was not against the slum-dwellers, but they had no other option as the slums were affecting residential areas. GSRT chairman Gautam Rao said, “It is a moment of triumph for us as it is the first major step in resolving this battle we’ve been fighting for years.”

- Now, only the issue of sluice gates, which were destroyed in June 2000, remained, Patel said. “But they will be re-installed before the monsoon,” he said.

- Since 2001, the government has demolished over 1,300 slums in the area.

- Asked if the government planned to rehabilitate the displaced slum-dwellers, Gawli said, “We have rehabilitated around 315 slum-dwellers, who had settled before 1995, at Anik Nagar in Chembur.”
News Source - DNA

Nullah News 05

Move over Marine Drive. Once the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) completes its three-year long project, 1,065 small and big nullahs would have been cleaned, their banks converted to promenades and residents will have their recreational space.

Nullah News 05 - Nullahs to be the next place to hang out or jog alongside it, says the BMC who is spending crores of rupess to turn nullah banks into recreational spaces.

A date at the Nullah

- The first in line to get a make-over are the Irla and Mogra nullahs in Andheri west, which shall be ready within one year.

- As of now, these banks have been encroached upon by unauthorised slum dwellers, who will be rehabilitated to transit camps across the city.

- BMC has appointed Montgomery Watson Harza as consultants, and they will be paid Rs 15.65 for drawing up the beautification plans for all the 1065 canals — of which 271 are in the island city, 509 in the eastern suburbs and 285 in the western suburbs.

- The total budget for this project is Rs 1,395 crore — out of which Rs 282 crore is for the island city, Rs 270 crore for the eastern suburbs and Rs 843 for the western suburbs. The basis of the beautification project will be the recommendations made by the Dr Chitale committee.

- Once completed, the attractions will include jogging tracks, parking spaces and flowing nullahs that will be clean all year round. Six metres on either side of the canals will be earmarked for vehicular traffic. The BMC hopes this will make citizens stay and spend longer periods in these spaces.

- To maintain the serene surroundings, no new construction will be permitted beside the nullahs. Any permission that has already been given will be re-examined by the Building Proposal department.

- The project details:
Total no of nullahs to becleaned: 1,065
First in line: Irla and Mogra, Andheri west
Ready in: 1 year
Total budget for project Rs 1,395 crore
News Source - TOI

Thursday, 19 July 2007

Nullah News 04

Yet another enroachment on a Nullah.

Nullah News - Irla Nullah issue comes up for bebate in BMC

Nullah Sweet Nullah

The Sena-BJP alliance has flayed the state government for overruling the BMC's decision to remove enroachments along the Irla nullah.
News Source - TOI

News Source - TOI

Nullah News 03

Another 'Whining Nullah Tale', where a city builder shrinks the Oshiwara Nullah to construct his shopping and housing complex, leaving little place for outflow of excess monsoon water

Nullah News - See this pic to know why we are in a mess.

'Squeezed to Please'

The capacity of storm water drain to carry rain water has been substantially diminished, resulting in severe flooding this year that has affected 57 housing societies and many shopkeepers.
News Source - TOI

News Source - TOI

- BMC says, 'We know the nullah has shrunk, but we will widen it beyond the two projects to increase flow of water'. 'If the construction is disturbing the alignment of the nullah, it is in violation of norms.
- Builder says, ' The construction is happening with the proper permission from civic authorities. The Nullah is fine where the project is going on.
News Source - TOI

News Source - TOI

Wednesday, 11 July 2007

waste water disposals

great research baptist!

i upload some images of water disposal in berlin. last year i watched the people cleaning the water tunnels. This is a pict from inside their observation car.

Monday, 25 June 2007

Nullah News 02

Bet, you will want to take a shower after reading this news article.

Nullah News - Aasmaan se gira nullah mein atka.
English Translation – Fell off the sky and got stuck in a Nullah.

33 Mobile Phones = 4.25 lakh = A dip in a Nullah

You’d think being stuck in a dirty nullah with 33 stolen mobile phones was bad enough. It got worse for the thief when the man he asked for help turned out to be a policeman.
News Source - TOI

- 22-yr-old Tejas Solanki (left) entered the Thane mall on Sunday night through a toilet window (right). Within eight hours, he stole phones worth Rs. 4.25 Lakh.
- Solanki escaped through the same window but fell into a nullah (left). He got stuck there and asked a passer-by for help. Unfortunately for him, the man turned out to be a policeman.
News Source - TOI

Nullah News 01

After my survey of the proposed public space, the Nullah that runs through it, is my focus for this project. In the midst of my research I came across this related news article and thought of sharing it. Please comment.

Nullah News - 33 Crores for ‘D’RAIN WASH

Its Flowing Money, Halleluiah!!!

Taking into considertaion the oncoming monsoons, the BMC has chalked out a rupees 33, 72 crore proposal for distilling of major and minor nullhas in the Western suburbs to avoid flooding in the areas. The distilling work for 2007-’09 have been divided in 13 groups.
News Source - TOI

News Source - TOI

Sunday, 24 June 2007

Nullah (contd)

Nullah (contd)

...Watch out for this space...

Please bear with me while I upload text/images for this section of the blog and will discuss in detail. Your patience is appreciated. Thanks.



...Watch out for this space...

Please bear with me, while I upload text/images for this section of the blog and will discuss in deatil. Your patience is appreciated. Thanks.

An Overview of Proposed Public Space - Detail

I have elaborated on each survey picture in detail and posted news articles related. Please Comment.

An Overview of Proposed Public Space - Detail

1. About Roundabouts

The roundabout which is on enroute the studios, is in the form of a giant tree-pot. It also doubles up as a seating area during non-peak hours.

Related News

- Roundabouts in Mumbai are few, as compared to what a typical city should have. The roundabout near Haji Ali which, doubled up as garden was cleared many years ago to ease traffic jams.
- Trees in the middle of streets are often seen as accident-prone areas. The tree in the middle of the Veer Savarkar Marg by the Catering College in Dadar, has claimed several lives.
News Source - TOI

2. Haunted Towers

- Rumor has it that, one of the tall towers in the extreme background is haunted. Please do not take my word for it, as I have heard several versions of accidental deaths and suicides. Please feel free to share your stories and watch out for this space. Is it even haunted in the first place…
- On close inspection of the picture, there is mobile number for 'THAKUR', reminds me of 'The Thakur' in 'Sholay'.

3. Concrete Paver Block(ed)

Stumbling……..ouch!! ouch!!
In recent times, a survey of public spaces in Mumbai cannot go without stumbling over these loosely-fitted Concrete Paver Blocks (CPB). This unattended pile was stacked by and in the government-owned redundant land.

Related News

The Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) is spending Rs. 680 crore of taxpayers’ money this year to re-lay foothpaths with CPB.
News Source - TOI

Corporators fear the Paver Blocks will not last the test of Monsoon as they have already started coming loose on several streets across the city.
News Source - TOI

4. Trespassers Will Be Prosecuted

One of the nullah’s branches cuts through a children’s playground and a government-owned redundant land. Going by the trend of malls mushrooming in every nook and corner of the suburbs, my sixth-sense tells me that another shopping mall will be constructed to compete with the mall on the opposite side of the road.

Related News

Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) has decided to construct and run ‘Municipal Malls’ in various spots in the city. Cant wait to see it….gulp!
News Source - TOI

5. Dream Homes, Dream On…

Does it really exist and if it did, its in a place called ‘Paradise’. Real estate prices in a prime location of Mumbai, is simply unbelievable. Even in a space as big as a classroom, a skyscraper of 25 to 35 floors stands tall.

An Overview of Proposed Public Space

A group of artist met on 24th March, 11 am at the 'Open Circle Studio', Om Society, Mhada, off Film City Rd, Goregaon (E). This was our second meet after Philip Horst elaborated upon the Artistic Interventions in Urban Public Space in Berlin and Western Europe, at the 'Goethe Hall', Max Muller Bhavan, Mumbai on 20th March, 6.30 pm.

24th March, 11 am - After going around in circles to locate the Studio, I finally gave up and called Sharmila for directions. She replied with an sms that read like this.

Western Express Highway take right. On the filmcity Road, 1st left, Cross Fire Station, Playground, go straight. Cross Ganesh Mandir. Opposite the Reliance office. A Mahada house with red wall. 80/582 Om Society.

With such precise directions, even an ant from Madagascar would be able to locate the studio.

After a short round of introducing our work and exchanging notes, we all set out individually to document our first impressions of the public space around the area.

An area map of Goregoan East (Pin Code 400 063) was handed out, to help us navigate around.

Detailed view of the proposed area.

An Overview of Proposed Public Space

As I stepped out of the studio, into the scorching sun, I noticed the newly constructed 'Nullah' some feet away. Out of curiosity, I checked its flowing contents, to only expect the usual trash, contaminated water and all things dirty and clogged. I followed this serpent-like-nullah by the road, which passed through houses and grocery shops to finally connect to an open space.

One of the nullah’s branches cuts through a children’s playground and a government-owned redundant land.

Following its branches I ended up on the main road where the nullah ran in between the high wall of the local Fire Brigade/Station and a busy road.

The three bridges that connect the government owned redundant land to the road, challenge health & safety regulations.

On the other side road was a Shopping Mall under construction.

An Overview of Public Spaces in Mumbai

Hi All,
Its been ages. Sorry to delay my uploads.
Let me start by introducing Public Spaces in Mumbai as a whole and observe how this commercial capital of India, almost survives every passing day.

An Overview of Public Spaces in Mumbai

1. Mumbai vs. Other Indian Cities

- A new Pan-India Study reveals level of public discontent in Mumbai. All age groups give the city a poor rating on three parameters including clean roads, pure drinking water and public toilets. Chandigarh situated in the northern part of India emerges as the clear winner in the first-of-its-kind survey by A C Nielsen ORG Marg.

News Source - Times of India (TOI)

2. Plus/Minus of Green Spaces

- 115 trees will face the axe due to a multi-crore makeover to the Gateway of India situated in South Mumbai. Work has finally started and it will be ready by 2008.
- On the other hand work has started on Navi Mumbai’s proposed Central Park, which will be the largest leisure and Recreation Park in Mumbai. Inspired my London’s Hyde Park it will be ready by 2011.

News Source - TOI

3. Plane in Slow Lane

- No, a new airport hasn’t sprung up at Chembur. But residents have to deal with a Boeing in their backyard.
News Source - TOI

4. 26/7 – Then & Now

- Almost two years after the overflowing Mithi river claimed 400 lives on the 26/7 not a penny of the proposed Rs. 1,298 crore central assistance has reached the state.
- A group of Chembur residents is ‘26/7 Ready’. They have put together its own disaster management kit, in case of severe flooding to reduce dependence on government authorities.

News Source - TOI

5. Metro vs. Road Accidents

- The engineering and logistical challenges involved in building an overhead transport route in the suburbs are daunting.
- Accidents continue to occur regularly along the 9-km Palm Beach Road that connects Belapur and Vashi in Navi Mumbai. In 2005, there were over 45 accidents on the raod and 10 fatalities, and the next year there were over 50 accidents and 11 deaths. This year, there have been seven road deaths.

News Source - TOI

6. Sea to Sky

- Over 2,200 men from all over the country are toiling, sometimes over 14 hours at a stretch, to give shape to the engineering marvel called the Bandra-Worli Sea link.
News Source - TOI

7. Global Cities

Guy Tillim 1962Born and works South AfricaJo’burg 2004–5
View of Hillbrow looking north from the roof of the Mariston Hotel
Framed photographs; archival pigment ink on cotton paper
Courtesy the artist and Michael Stevenson Gallery, Cape Town

looks at the changing faces of ten dynamic international cities: Cairo, Istanbul, Johannesburg, London, Los Angeles, Mexico City, Mumbai, São Paulo, Shanghai and Tokyo.
Exploring each city through five thematic lenses – speed, size, density, diversity and form – the exhibition draws on data originally assembled for the 10th International Architecture Exhibition at the 2006 Venice Biennale. This unique show presents existing films, videos and photographs by more than 20 artists and architects to offer subjective and intimate interpretations of urban conditions in all ten cities.

- Read More

- The city of Mumbai (Bombay) covers 438 km2 of Salsette Island, although almost a fifth of this area is occupied by Borivali National Park. This means the urban areas are condensed into about 350 km2, with a high gross residential density, about seven times the density of London. About half the population lives in makeshift shacks with no sewers or water. Urban housing is cramped and expensive, and open public space is limited – only 1% of the city’s area – and often poorly-maintained.

- Mumbai’s more affluent classes live in a corridor stretching along the city’s north-south axis. Taller residential structures are surrounded by densely-packed, low rise slum buildings. As the city diversifies from its core industries, former mill areas and docklands offer the potential to produce affordable housing and accessible public spaces, but given current development trends, are likely to become exclusive office and residential zones.

- Lack of investment means urban infrastructure cannot meet the demands of a growing population. 85% of residents (the equivalent of the population of Norway) use public transport every day; train carriages are regularly filled well beyond their intended capacity. Mumbai is a city where the vast majority of people still walk to work, reflecting the strong link between the location of informal housing and workplaces.

- PROJECT: CHIKHALWADI SANITATION PROJECT Mumbai lacks sanitation facilities for about half its population. The absence of running water and sewerage connections is unacceptable and potentially lifethreatening. Children in slums cannot compete in the long queues for scarce municipal toilets; they defecate outside their homes.

- The Chikhalwadi Sanitation Project consists of community toilet blocks designed, constructed and maintained by collectives. They include separate spaces for men, women and children. Capital finance for construction comes from the state or municipalities, who also have to ensure that water and electricity are provided to the blocks.ARCHITECT: VISTAAR ARCHITECTS AND PLANNERS CLIENT: SPARC COMPLETION DATE: 2004
News Source - Tate Modern, London